Analía Bellizzi – Chemistry Classes

Ronald Reagan High School

REACTIVITY OF THE MAIN METALS

POTASSIUM

Reaction with water

When a small piece of potassium is added to water, it produces a hissing sound as it burns with a lilac flame. It also moves about quickly on the water surface.

Hydrogen gas is given out in the reaction. The resulting alkaline solution will turn red litmus blue because of the potassium hydroxide formed.

potassium + water è potassium hydroxide solution + hydrogen

4K(s) + 4H2O(l) → 4KOH (aq) + 2H2(g)

Reaction with oxygen

Potassium burns vigorously in oxygen, so only gentle heating is required to make it burn. It gives a lilac flame to produce an orange powder.

Potassium + oxygen → potassium oxide

K(s) + O2(g) → K2O(s)

Reaction with dilute acids

Potassium reacts with dilute acids explosively.

Potassium reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid to give potassium chloride and hydrogen gas.

Potassium + dilute hydrochloric acid  potassium chloride + hydrogen

2K(s) + 2HCl(aq)  2KCl(aq) + H2(g)

Potassium reacts with dilute sulphuric acid to give potassium sulphate and hydrogen gas.

potassium + dilute sulphuric acid  potassium sulphate + hydrogen

2K(s) + H2SO4 (aq) → K2SO4(aq) + H2(g)

Potassium reacts with dilute nitric acid to give potassium nitrate and hydrogen gas.

potassium + dilute nitric acid è potassium nitrate + hydrogen

2K(s) + 2HNO3(aq) → 2KNO3(aq) + H2(g)

SODIUM

Reaction with water

When a small piece of sodium is added to water, it moves about on the water surface. Its size gradually becomes smaller.

Hydrogen gas is given out in the reaction. The resulting alkaline solution will turn red litmus blue because of the sodium hydroxide formed.

sodium + water → sodium hydroxide solution + hydrogen

4Na(s) + 4H2O(l) → 4NaOH(aq) + 2H2(g)

Reaction with oxygen

Sodium burns vigorously in oxygen, so only gently heating is required to make it burn. It gives a golden yellow flame to produce a white powder.

Sodium + oxygen → sodium oxide

 4Na (s) + O2(g) → 2Na2O(s)

Reaction with dilute acids

Sodium may reacts with dilute acids explosively

Sodium reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid to give sodium chloride and hydrogen gas.

sodium + dilute hydrochloric acid → sodium chloride + hydrogen

2Na(s) + 2HCl(aq) → 2NaCl(aq) + H2(g)

Sodium reacts with dilute sulphuric acid to give sodium sulphate and hydrogen gas.

sodium + dilute sulphuric acid → sodium sulphate + hydrogen

2Na(s) + H2SO4(aq) → Na2SO4(aq) + H2(g)

Sodium reacts with dilute nitric acid to give sodium nitrate and hydrogen gas.

sodium + dilute nitric acid → sodium nitrate + hydrogen

2Na(s) + 2HNO3(aq) → 2NaNO3(aq) + H2(g)

CALCIUM

Reaction with water

When a small piece of calcium is added to water, it sinks to the bottom of the water. Colorless gas bubbles evolved at a moderate rate. Unlike potassium or sodium, this experiment is safe enough to capture the gas produces, which gives a “pop” sound with a burning splint, indicative of hydrogen gas.

A milky suspension is produced, as the white calcium hydroxide formed is only slightly soluble in water. However, the alkaline solution produced is still strong enough to turn red litmus to blue.

Calcium + water →  calcium hydroxide + hydrogen

Ca(s) + 2H2O(l) →  Ca(OH)2(aq) + H2(g)

Reaction with oxygen

Calcium burns quite vigorously in oxygen and strong heating is required to make it burn. It gives a brick red flame to produce a white powder of calcium oxide.

Calcium + oxygen →  calcium oxide

2Ca(s) + O2(g) →  2CaO(s)

Reaction with dilute acids

The following experiment should be carried out with care.

Calcium reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid to give calcium chloride and hydrogen gas.

calcium + dilute hydrochloric acid →  calcium chloride + hydrogen

Ca(s) + 2HCl(aq) →  CaCl2(aq) + H2(g)

Calcium reacts with dilute sulphuric acid to give calcium sulfate and hydrogen gas. Initial reaction is fast, but gradually slows down. This is because calcium sulfate is quite insoluble in water, which forms a protective layer on calcium and preventing the acid to react effectively with calcium.

Calcium + dilute sulphuric acid →  calcium sulphate + hydrogen

Ca(s) + H2SO4(aq) →  CaSO4(s) + H2(g)

Calcium reacts with dilute nitric acid to give calcium nitrate and hydrogen gas.

calcium + dilute nitric acid →  calcium nitrate + hydrogen

Ca(s) + 2HNO3(aq) →  Ca(NO3)2(aq) + H2(g)

MAGNESIUM

Reaction with cold water

Magnesium virtually has no reaction with cold water.

It reacts slowly with hot water to give hydrogen gas and white magnesium hydroxide, which is only slightly soluble in water.

Magnesium + water →   magnesium hydroxide solution + hydrogen

Mg(s) + 2H2O(l) →   Mg(OH)2(s) + H2(g)

Magnesium can react vigorously with steam to give an intense white light. Hydrogen gas and a white solid of magnesium oxide [image]

Hydrogen gas is given out in the reaction. The resulting alkaline solution will turn red litmus blue because of the magnesium hydroxide formed.

Magnesium + steam →   magnesium oxide + hydrogen

Mg(s) + H2O (g) →   MgO(s) + H2(g)

Reaction with oxygen

Strong heating is required to make magnesium burn in oxygen. Once the reaction starts, it gives an intense brilliant white flame to produce a white powder of magnesium oxide.

magnesium + oxygen →   magnesium oxide

2Mg(s) + O2(g) →   2MgO(s)

Reaction with dilute acids

Magnesium reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid to give magnesium chloride and hydrogen gas.

magnesium + hydrochloric acid →   magnesium chloride + hydrogen

Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq) →   MgCl2(aq) + H2(g)

  • Magnesium reacts with dilute sulphuric acid to give magnesium sulphate and hydrogen gas.

magnesium + sulphuric acid →   magnesium sulphate + hydrogen

Mg(s) + H2SO4 (aq) →   MgSO4(aq) + H2(g)

Magnesium reacts with dilute nitric acid to give magnesium nitrate and hydrogen gas.

magnesium + nitric acid →   magnesium nitrate + hydrogen

Mg(s) + 2HNO3(aq) →   Mg(NO3)2(aq) + H2(g)

ALUMINUM

Reaction with water

Aluminium does not react with cold water.

Although aluminium reacts readily with steam to give aluminium oxide and hydrogen gas, the reaction does not always occur. This is due to a thin but strong layer of aluminium oxide being coated onto the metal, thus preventing it from the reaction.

aluminium + steam → aluminium oxide + hydrogen

2Al(s) + 3H2O(g)  →  Al2O3(s) + 3H2(g)

Reaction with oxygen

Strong heating is required to make aluminium powder burn in oxygen. Much heat is given out during the reaction and a white powder is formed.

aluminium + oxygen  →  aluminium oxide

4Al(s) + 3O2(g)  →  2Al2O3(s)

Reaction with dilute acids

Aluminium reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid to give aluminium chloride and hydrogen gas.

aluminium + hydrochloric acid  →  aluminium chloride + hydrogen

2Al(s) + 6HCl (aq)  →  2AlCl3 (aq) + 3H2(g)

Aluminium reacts with dilute sulphuric acid to give aluminium sulphate and hydrogen gas.

aluminium + sulphuric acid  →  aluminium sulphate + hydrogen

2Al(s) + 3H2SO4(aq)  →  Al2(SO4)3(aq) + 3H2(g)

Aluminium reacts with dilute nitric acid to give aluminium nitrate and hydrogen gas.

aluminium + nitric acid  →  aluminium nitrate + hydrogen

2Al(s) + 6HNO3 (aq)  →  2Al(NO3)3 (aq) + 3H2(g)

CARBON


CARBON

Reaction with oxygen

Strong heating is required to make carbon powder burns in oxygen. Carbon dioxide that subsequently formed can turn lime water (calcium hydroxide solution) milky.

carbon + oxygen → carbon dioxide

C(s) + O2(g) → CO2(g)

ZINC

Reaction with water

Zinc virtually has no reaction with cold water.

Zinc reacts with steam to give zinc oxide and hydrogen gas. The reaction occurs in a similar way as magnesium does, but less vigorous.

zinc + steam → zinc oxide + hydrogen

Zn(s) + H2O(g) → ZnO(s) + H2(g)

Reaction with oxygen

Strong heating is required to make zinc powder burn in oxygen. Much heat is given out during the reaction and a white powder is formed, which is yellow when hot and white when cold.

zinc + oxygen → zinc oxide

2Zn(s) + O2(g) → 2ZnO(s)

Reaction with dilute acids

Zinc reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid to give zinc chloride and hydrogen gas.

zinc + hydrochloric acid → zinc chloride + hydrogen

Zn(s) + 2HCl(aq) → ZnCl2(aq) + H2(g)

Zinc reacts with dilute sulphuric acid to give zinc sulphate and hydrogen gas.

zinc + sulphuric acid → zinc sulphate + hydrogen

Zn(s) + H2SO4 (aq) → ZnSO4(aq) + H2(g)

Zinc reacts with dilute nitric acid to give zinc nitrate and hydrogen gas.

Zinc + nitric acid → Zinc nitrate + hydrogen

Zn(s) + 2HNO3(aq) → Zn(NO3)2(aq) + H2(g)

IRON

Reaction with water

Iron virtually has no reaction with cold water.

Iron reacts with steam to give iron oxide and hydrogen gas. The reaction occurs in a similar way as magnesium does, but much less vigorous.

iron + steam → iron (II) iron (III) oxide + hydrogen gas

3Fe(s) + 4H2O(g) → Fe3O4 (s) + 4H2 (g)

* Fe3O4 = FeO.Fe2O3

Reaction with oxygen

Strong heating is required to make iron powder burn in oxygen. The reaction gives out a yellow showery sparks and produces a black solid.

iron + oxygen → iron (II) oxide, iron (III) oxide

3Fe(s) + 2O2(g) → Fe3O4(s)

Reaction with dilute acids

Iron reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid to give iron chloride and hydrogen gas.

iron + hydrochloric acid → iron chloride + hydrogen

Fe(s) + 2HCl(aq) → FeCl2(aq) + H2(g)

Iron reacts with dilute sulphuric acid to give iron sulphate and hydrogen gas.

iron + sulphuric acid → iron sulphate + hydrogen

Fe(s) + H2SO4 (aq) → FeSO4(aq) + H2(g)

Iron reacts with dilute nitric acid to give Iron nitrate and hydrogen gas.

iron + nitric acid → iron nitrate + hydrogen

Fe(s) + 2HNO3(aq) → Fe(NO3)2(aq) + H2(g)

LEAD

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COPPER

Reaction with water

Copper does not react with water.

Reaction with oxygen

On strong heating, copper forms into a black solid of copper oxide.

copper + oxygen �> copper(II) oxide

2Cu(s) + O2(g) �> 2CuO(s)

Reaction with dilute acids

Copper usually does not react with most cold, dilute acids. However, it will react with hot, concentrated sulfuric acid and can react with both dilute and concentrated nitric acid.