Analía Bellizzi – Chemistry Classes

Ronald Reagan High School

Matter Notes IGCSE #2

Properties of Matter​

Extensive Properties

They are the ones that depend on how much matter is present. They cannot be used to identify the substance since they change depending on the conditions and the sample size

Examples:

  • Volume
  • Mass
  • Size
  • Weight
  • Length
Volume
Volume is an extensive property
Mass
Mass is an extensive property
Size
Size is an extensive property
Weight
Weight is an extensive property
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Intensive Properties

Intensive properties depend on the identity of the substance, not the amount, so they are the ones that do not depend on how much of the substance is present in the sample. They can be used to identify the substance.

Examples:

  • Boiling Point
  • Melting Point
  • Freezing Point
  • State of Matter
  • Color
  • Odor
  • Temperature
  • Luster
  • Hardness
  • Density
  • Malleability
  • Ductility
Boiling Point
Boiling point is an intensive property. Water boils at 100C, one drop or one bucket of water will boil at the same temperature
Melting Point
Melting Point is an intensive property Ice melts at 0C. If you have an ice cube or a big container full of ice.
Color
Color is an intensive property. One crystal of sulfur or a kilogram of sulfur will be yellow
Density
Density is an intensive property.

Density represent the ratio between two EXTENSIVE PROPERTIES, mass and volume, but the ratio between those numbers is always constant
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Physical Properties

They can be observed without changing the identity of the substance.

Examples:

  • Boiling Point (temperature at which the substance boils
  • Melting Point (temperature at which the substance melts)
  • Freezing Point (temperature at which a substance freezes)
  • State of Matter (state at room temperature)
  • Color
  • Odor (does it smell?)
  • Magnetism (is it attracted to magnets?)
  • Luster (is it shinny?)
  • Hardness (is it hard or soft?)
  • Density
  • Malleability (can it be molded by hammering?)
  • Ductility (can it be pulled out into wires?)
  • Electrical Conductivity(does it conduct electricity?)
  • Solubility (does it dissolve in water? in acetone?

Chemical Properties

They CANNOT be observed without changing the identity of the substance. To test these properties we need to produce a CHEMICAL CHANGE

Examples:

      • Flammability (does it catch fire?)
      • Tarnish (does it get dark with the air?)
      • Rusting (does it form an oxide?)
      • reaction with water
      • reaction with acids
      • reaction with metals?

Signs of a chemical change

      • change in color
      • change in odor
      • formation of a gas
      • formation of a precipitate
      • change in light or heat